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|Title:||Assessing the origin of some representative Archean-Paleoproterozoic porphyry Cu ± Au deposits|
|Keywords:||: Porphyry Cu systems;Archean;paleoproterozoi;Trans-North China Orogen;Richtersveld Magmatic Arc;Abitibi greenstone belt;Tongkuangyu;Haib;Côté Gold,;St-Jude;Croxall;Magmatic oxygen fugacity;Zircon;Apatite;µ-XANES;zircon Hf-O isotopes|
|Abstract:||Most known porphyry Cu ± Au deposits are exclusively associated with oxidized and sulfurrich Phanerozoic arc-related magmas, but Precambrian analogues are rare. The genesis of some rare examples of such deposits (e.g., Tongkuangyu in Trans-North China Orogen) remains debated, and in particular, it remains unclear as to whether similar metallogenic processes that typify the Phanerozoic deposits also operated in the Precambrian. To resolve these issues, three study areas were chosen to variably characterize relevant aspects of these deposits in the context of porphyry-type metallogenies (i.e., the nature of mineralization, the redox states and volatile element abundances of the causative magmas): (1) the ~2.1 Ga Tongkuangyu deposit in Trans-North China Craton; (2) the ~1.88 Ga Haib porphyry Cu deposit, Southern Namibia; and (3) representative porphyry-type Cu ± Au deposits (Côté Gold, St-Jude, and Croxall) in the ~2.7 Ga Abitibi subprovince. At the Tongkuangyu deposit, remapping of the distribution of the host rocks, alteration, and mineralization support a porphyry-type model where ore formation occurred at ~2.1 Ga. This age is significantly later than the host granodiorite porphyry (~2.18 Ga) and schists (~2.5–2.2 Ga) and indicates that porphyry-type mineralization need not be linked directly to a causative magma exposed at surface. Instead, the latter is interpreted to be represented by subjacent porphyritic stocks and dikes. At the Haib deposit, the host calc-alkaline plutonic rocks and mineralization are dated to ca. 1886–1881 Ma. Estimations of magmatic fO2 and S, based on zircon geochemistry, apatite µXANES spectra, and apatite S analysis, demonstrate that oxidized, sulfur-rich arc magmas associated with porphyry Cu mineralization already existed in the late Paleoproterozoic. In addition, zircon Hf-O isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry support magmas of mantlederivation with minor crustal contributions that experienced amphibole ± plagioclase fractionation. These features of the Haib magmas are thus similar to those for Phanerozoic porphyry Cu deposits. For the ~2.7 Ga TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite-diorite)-related porphyry-type Cu ± Au deposits in the Abitibi subprovince, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon Hf-O isotopes, apatite S contents, and multiple oxybarometers suggest that variable magmatic origin and fO2 for the causative magmas. The rarity of porphyry-type Cu-Au deposits in these older settings may be attributed to either location restriction of these favorable metallogenic conditions and/or preservation, or exploration bias.|
|Appears in Collections:||Mineral Deposits and Precambrian Geology - Doctoral theses|
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