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Title: Antibacterial activity of freshwater green microalgae isolated from water bodies near abandoned mine sites in Ontario, Canada
Authors: Senhorinho, Gerusa Neyla Andrade
Keywords: abandoned mine sites;antibiotic;antibacterial activity;freshwater;green microalgae;viability;malignant cells
Issue Date: 6-Jul-2018
Abstract: Progress of modern medicine relies on the discovery of new antibiotics. The increasing threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of patients previously considered low risk, has highlighted the serious need for the expansion of antibiotic research and development. Historically, natural products have been the most successful source of antibiotics as they have complex and unique chemical structures and modes of action. Since most available antibiotics are originally a result of the secondary metabolism of bacteria and fungi, microorganisms from diverse environments capable of producing secondary metabolites have been and currently are being investigated for antibacterial production. Green microalgae are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be found in a very wide range of habitats, including extreme environments. These microorganisms are known to produce a series of commercially valuable compounds as a result of their secondary metabolism. The central aim of this thesis was to determine the potential of green microalgae as antibiotic producers collected (bioprospected) from water bodies near abandoned mine sites in Ontario, Canada. These water bodies exhibited a variety of chemical profiles, including high metal concentrations and low pH. Forty species of green microalgae were subsequently isolated and their extracts tested against various bacteria. The findings showed that 37.5% of these microalgae produced antibacterial compounds that seem to specifically inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, in particular the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. This was a higher success rate than any previous study on green microalgae. In addition, the evaluation of crude extracts of Chlamydomonas sp., the most common isolated species, demonstrated variation in antibacterial activity during cell growth. The highest antibacterial activity from this species was found in the exponential phase. Furthermore, green microalgal extracts exhibiting antibacterial activity also decreased the cell viability of malignant cells, particularly the rapidly dividing human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells. However, the extracts did not decrease the cell viability of non-malignant cells. Taken together, the results of this thesis reveal that freshwater green microalgae from water bodies near abandoned mine sites are potential sources of antibacterial compounds against Grampositive bacteria and should be further investigated against rapidly dividing malignant cells.
Appears in Collections:Biomolecular Sciences - Doctoral Theses
Doctoral Theses

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